THE PRACTICE OF BODHISATTVA DHARMA
(SUTRA TRANSLATION COMMITTEE OF THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA, SERIES#.4)
Buddha-Dharma is the wisdom of all people and the light of the world. If people possess wisdom, then civilization is able to expand and go forward. If one has light, then even he, as an individual, can help to disperse the darkness of ignorance. Thus, wisdom and civilization are the right way for everyone to follow, and Buddhadharma illuminates the world.
Just what is Buddhadharma? It is a method to enable all
being to become Buddha. “Buddha” means “enlightened One”,
but the term can be extended to mean enlightening oneself and others as well as enlightening all people and all sentient beings.
Because everybody in reality, possesses the Original nature of Enlightenment, everybody can, therefore, become a Buddha. However, people in the world, in their daily lives, are strongly bound by feelings of love and hate,etc.;and they are, also, deeply confused by their own Original Wisdom and cloud their own Buddha Nature and are ultimately overcome by all sorts of obstacles and delusions.
Therefore, the great Dharma Master Tai-Hsu recommended
that Buddhism should be promoted and spread everywhere. thus, all people should be encouraged to understand the Dharma, increase their wisdom, purify their own minds, and be directed onto the open, wide and comfortable Path, that from numerous and various beginning point arrives at last, at the Supreme Bodhi.
For this reason, Dharma Master Tai-Hsu wrote The Practice
of Bodhisattva Dharma, which recommends accepting the Three Refugees to link up with Triple Jewel, practicing goodness and generosity, observing the Five precepts and the Ten Virtues, and diligently performing the Six paramitas and the Four All-Embracing Virtues. So practitioners, whether following Mahayana or Hinayana, whether monks or laymen, and people of every degree—with either shallow or deep understanding and ability - will see, if they practice regularly, responsibly and sincerely, the Fruits of Bodhi gradually increasing day by day.
I fervently hope and desire that all people and friends in the Dharma, after reading this work and following its recommendations, will discover that their blessing and wisdom are constantly on the increase.
Dharma Master Lok To
Young Men’s Buddhist Association of America
Bronx, New York
THE PRACTICE OF BODHISATTVA DHARMA
In the Buddha’s teaching, the Sutra collection and the Vinaya collection comprise two kinds of Dharma. The Sutras are the collection of the Buddha’s discourses given over a forty-year period in the Ganges valley, in India, nearly 2,6000 years ago, and they are concerned with the nature of mind and experience and the reality of the suffering, unsatisfactoriness, and the frustration of conditioned existence. The Vinaya is the collection that sets forth the discipline of body and speech that bhiksus and bhiksunis (Buddhist monks and nuns) must practice. this monastic code of discipline is undertaken upon ordination, when one formally leaves home life, and Vinaya of this sort is primarily the concern of the Sangha (monastic body). An expanded version of this Buddhist training is the Bodhisattva ordination, wherein one undertakes the practice of the fundamental bodhisattva Dharma of body and mind. This Bodhisattva Dharma encompasses many levels and degrees of practice, both worldly and transcendental, and it is truly wondrous and inconceivable.
Many people are familiar with the term “Bodhisattva”, but the genuine meaning of the term could stand some clarification. The average person perhaps considers images made of clay, wood or gold or portraits and paintings of saintly personalities to be some manner of substitute Bodhisattva. Indeed, through Asian national customs and traditions, we have come to associate religious statuary of this sort with the term “Bodhisattva”.
Needless to say, this is incorrect. We should understand
that there are Buddha rupas portraying a higher degree of practice
than Bodhisattva and also images of lesser sages, patriarchs, and
even demons with bodies of oxen and serpents. These images
should not be indiscriminately lumped together under the designation
“Bodhisattva”. Actually, men and women cannot look like the representations of Bodhisattva that artists have created. However, we are human beings with mind, and if we vow to practice Bodhisattva behavior, then we can gradually become Bodhisattvas. the Sanskrit term “Bodhisattva” is composed of two words:
Bodhi, which means enlightenment or awakening;
~~~~~and sattva, which means being.
The designation “Bodhisattva” originally meant a living being who had developed or had determined to hold the Bodhicitta.
Citta is a Sanskrit work that means mind or heart; in the East,
The two world “heart “ and “mind” are synonymous. To search with
the great perseverance for the Supreme Bodhi and to
develop a compassionate heart in order to effect the liberation
of all sentient beings from their states of conditioned suffering—
such is the authentic meaning of the life and path of one who
has taken the Bodhisattva vows. Therefore, if we can resolve
determinedly to develop the Bodihicitta, to search above for the
Tao of the Buddha and seek the below to convert all sentient being to
the right path—not simply in theory but in genuine practice—
then we are practicing real Bodhisattva Dharma. Only one who
urges all beings to strive upward and penetrate the region of the great enlightenment can validly be recognized as and be called A bodhisattva. Thus, it should be clear that images of clay or gold are not the real thing; and only those who have determined the Bodhicitta are genuine Bodhisattvas.
To initiate the Tao of the Bodhisattva, one need not already stand in the highest regions of sanctity. By the same token, when we observe our own natures closely, we see that pure-mind realms are not so very far away. Starting from our worldly state, we march, step by step, toward the highest, holiest region and create purity and freedom. Staring from the shallow and progressing to the deep, we transform inferior into superior beauty. Beginning as worldlings with the bodhicitta, we eventually shall enter the blessed stage of the final Diamond Heart. This is the condition of the superlatively enlightened Bodhisattva.
Most people who have confidence in the Buddhadharma and consider themselves Buddhists do not vow the develop the bodhicitta. Thus, they remain mere worldlings if they do not choose to add to themselves to dimension of Bodhisattva mind. Genuine Buddhists who have determined the Bodhicitta are as rare as the feathers of a phoenix or the horn of a unicorn. another kind of Buddhist are those who, after encountering the Buddhadharma , imagines the accomplishment of Buddhahood to be so lofty as to be virtually unreachable. because of their inadequate self-confidence, such people fail to realize the real goal and cannot complete the Buddha Tao. They grasp the expedient teaching which was revealed gradually by the Buddha—i.e., wholesome karma in this world and the subsequent reward of heavenly bliss.
Learning this very shallow dharma, they wish only to
satisfy their desire for bliss and blessings in the present life.
they can be said to have learned some Buddhadharma, but they are
still quite far, in reality, from any genuine, profound understanding
of teaching. in short, they are merely grasping expedient
teaching as absolute truth. Buddha was the censure this kind of
understanding as icchantika or the state of being unable to make
Yet another kind of Buddhist is the sort who is personally aware of the Bsufferion of birth and death and so learns the void dharma of the Middle-Way beyond the two extremes of “is” and “is not”. Always grasping the extremes of “is” and “is not”, and then one can enter the stage of void samadhi. Even though this is considered a superior position and can lead to the practice of Mahayana, it is, However, not the Bodhisattva Tao leading to the Supreme Buddha Fruit. Thus, this approach was censured by the Budhisattva Dharma, whether high or samadhi. The practice of Bodhisattva Dharma, whether high or low, worldly or transcendental, starts from the human level and proceeds until the complete Tao of Bodhi is won. This characterizes that practice that goes all the way through from top to bottom, and it require nothing apart from determining the Bodhicitta and vowing to act as a Bodhisattv a . This development is analogous, by way of example, to a person beginning kinder-garten and proceeding until he eventually reaches the research institute and earns his doctoral degree; at all stages of his academic career he is calle d a student. Similarly, in developing Bodhisattva practice, one begins by vowing to detrermine the Bodhicitta and progresses to the Final-Diamond-Heart stage. The beginning one approaches the Buddha Fruit. All stages are termed Bodhisattva, and pratice is an ongoing matter. The Bodhisattva stage immediately preceeding the Buddha Fruit is termed the Final Diamond Heart. Though it is not easy to carry through, by not letting go of Boddhisattva Mind even for one instant, one will gradually complete the work and achieve the goal.
The pratice of this Bodhisattva Dharma is easily initiated by accepting the Three Refuges of Buddha, Dharma and Sangha. Because it is feared that a person might stray onto wrong paths, one, after accepting the Three Refuges, is encouraged to determine to hold the Four Great Vows. These are:(1) Sentient beings without number I vow to enlighten; (2) Vexations without number I vow to eradicate; (3) limitless approaches to Dharma I vow to master; (4) Supreme Bodhi I vow to acheive. The purpose of taking the Three Refuges is to enable people to disentangle themselves from erroneous views; the Four Great Vows are used to teach people to hold to no desire for the bliss of men and devas and the void samadhi of Dviyana (the two yanas of Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas). This path can be termed the direct road of the Boddhisattva Tao that leads one to the Supreme Bodhi. After accepting the Three Refuges and thus inaugurating the bodhisattva-Dharma training, it is very important for one to pratice everywhere, continually turning the wheel of the Dharma and aiding all sentient beings. relative to this view, the Vimalakirtinirdesa Surta says: “The Bodhimandala ( place of spiritual pratice) of the Bodhisattva is everywhere.”
ACCEPTION THE THREE REFUGES TO LINK UP
WITH THE TRIPLE JEWEL
In his acceptance of the Three Refuges, the essential point to be stressed is that the aspirant should develop a very fervent desire to behold the Buddha, Dharma and Sangha. While maintain-ing a spirit of self-sacrifice in relationship to the Bodhisattva Dharma. extended to body, mind and even life, one should forge a vow in the following manner:
“ I, namely so and so, as a disciple of the Buddha, vow
to take refuges in the Buddha, Dharma and Sangha throughout my entire life.”
While uttering this vow, one should maintain a spirit of great devotion and solace. When one repeats this vow while prostration to the Buddha, one comes to fell great awe as of a great mountain had exploded in front of him. One may experience great solace just as a nursing child deprived of milk might experience if suddenly he met his lovelymother and had anover whelming impulse to surrender himself into her arms. These wholesome emotions, coupled with repentance and joy, are kindled in one’s heart. Having experienced skillful mental states such as the above, one states the following:
“ I, namely so and so, accept the Three Refuges for the remainder
of my life, and, feeling like a bird who once had lost its nest and has once again returned to its home forest or like an infant who is dependent upon his loving mother, I vow never to stray away at midday (i.e., before the end of my life) and will always hold these Refuges with great devotion.”
These Refuges arre the Buddha, Dharma and Sangha, otherwise known as the Three Precious Ones of the Triple Jewel, “Precious” here meaning valuable and worth of respect. Taking refuge as understood here we are also simultaneously taking refuge in the Triple Gem within ourselves. This means that our own fundamentally enlightened mind is Buddha; our speech, used to teach and aid living beings, is Dharma; and our bodies and behavior are the symbolls of Sangha, the enlightened community of Noble Ones.
We first go for refuge to Buddha. Buddha means the Enlightened One, who has fully accomplished ANUTTARA SAMYAKSAMBODHI, the perfect Complete Awakening. Therefore, the appellation given to enlightened ones is simply “Buddha”.
This title has been used since the original period of the Buddha’s teaching in India. The founder of the Buddhist religion was called SAKYAMUNI , or sage of the Sakya clan; but after he achieved the Supreme Awakening, he was thenceforth called SAKYAMUNI BUDDHA. We go for reguge to Sakyamune Buddha but simultaneously take refuge in all Buddhas of the ten directions and in the three periods of time. Because the epithet “Buddha” denotes the attaiment of perfect virtue and wisdom, there is complete equality between Sakyamuni Buddha and all other Buddhas. So even though we go for refuge to our original teacher Sakyamuni. it is reasonable that we also, at the same time, take three time periods. Taking refuge voluntarily, one should concentrate all the energy of one’s Dharama practice to realize the perfection of blessedness and wisdon; i.e., one should also harbor no pride whatsoever over one’s small storehouse of virtue and wisdom. With feelings of pity and sadness for the unskillful, one should always maintain a sense of reverence within oneself and dwell in delight and peace.
Secondly, we go for refuge to the Dharma. Because all Byddhas depend on the Dharma as their teacher, the Dharma is recognized as the most important refuge. The Buddha was enlightened and practiced in accordance with the Dharma After his attainment of Bodhi, the Buddha taught all his disciples to practic Dharma and reap the fruit just as he had. One’s heart and mind should incline naturally toward the Dharma, and one should feel as if his whole body were embraced by the Dharma.
Thirdly, we go for refuge to the Sangha, the present superintendent of the Three Precious Ones. In India, “Sangha” originally meant harmony. The ability of the assembly to harmonize and stay together is called Sangha. When more than four people live togther in harmony. the term “Sangha” can be applied to decribe the situation. According to the Buddhadharma, if disciples leace home to practice (i.e., to become bhiksus or bhiksunis) and dwell harmoniously together in a VIHARA, they are called a Sangha. According to the Theravada teaching, those who have practiced and attained the various stages of liberation and sanctity of the Three Vehicles make up the Sangha of Arahants and Sagres. According to the Maha ya na teaching, disciples practicing the Bodhisattva Dharma and attaining its fruit make up the Bodhisattva Sangha When we go for refuge to the Sangha, we should include all the various meaning of the term in our understanding. However, in the beginning stages of Dharma study, it is more important that we take refuge in the present superintendent Sangha of disciples who have left home. The transmission of the Buddhadharma in this world depends upon this present Sangha to protect and actualize the Teachings. We take refuge with and depend upon them to learn the practice path to Bodhi. Therefore, we take refuge to link up with the tradition of Bodhisattva Dharma practice and initially are not so concerned with which teacher is the wisest and who has developed the highest wisdom and virtue in former lives. We should be primarily concerned with cultivating our own good roots, developing harmony with everyone and universally aiding them to achieve minds concentrated in and focussed upon the Buddhadharma.
One who takes refuge should understand that the Buddha is all-virtuous and worthy of all respect and that the Buddha-Mind represents the incomparable field of blissings in this world. We should understand that the Dharma is a complete teaching that is full of principles explicitly outlining the path to the Supreme Swakening. The Sangha should be understood to be the pure Dharma teacher, excellent in conduct and expedient methods of instruction. In this manner, regarding the Three Precious Ones with deep admiration, we cas successfully go for refuge, even to the end of our livesm with full confidence in the practice path. Without recourse to religious or philosohpical views, we shall always remain disciples of the Buddha. This, then, is the beginning of the determination to achieve the Bodhisattva Mind in the practice of Bodhisattva Dharma.
PRACTICING GOODNESS AND GENEROSITY,
INCREASING BLISS AND DISPELLING CALA.
Faith of confidence in the Three Precious Ones is extemely
wholesome because synonymous with this confidence is the desire to
practice loving-kindness and perform acts of goodness. According to
the Buddha’s Teaching, to respect, make offerings towards and to
contribute to the happiness and welfare of all sentient beings is the
primary field in which to sow the seeds of bliss in this world. Building
temples or creating statues of religious personalities, etc., can lead
to bliss and wisdom and is termed the field of reverence. Offering
devotion. respect and gratitude to one’s parents and teachers due to the
fact that they are one’s benefactors is termed the field of grace. We
should do our best for the poverty-strichen, the ill,old, weak and disabled
, etc., because they are fall into states of woe and calamity, should we
be armed with our practice of generosty and purity of heart, we would then
be able to transform these situations into more fortunate ones.
Natural disasters and catastrophes arise simply as a response to evil
minds and unwholesome activities on the part of many living being. If human
beings were to determine to use wholesome mind and pure action in all
circumstances, then bliss and happiness would follow naturally. All people
want a life free from ill and calamity and full of happiness. To expect a
life of happiness without performing wholesome and benficial activites is
not a legitimate expectation. If one does not sow the appropriate seeds,
one will surely not reap the desired response or result. The novice Boddhi-
sattva should develop a storehouse of skillful activity and virtue in order
to increase the happiness of all sentient beings.
TAKING THE REFUGE OF RIGHT FAITH
After accepting the Three Refuges, it is important to take
the refuge of the Right faith. People who have cultivated the
Buddha-dharma in their previous lives and have developed strong
,deep roots and thus have natural confidence in the Teaching can
take the refuge of the Right Faith directly. One takes this Refuge
of Right Faith in the presence of a teacher and offers one’s unlimited
devotion of the Three Precious Ones. When reciting one’s affirmation
the pratice path of Bodhi, One should visualize woshipping at the
Buddha’s feet and achieving unity with the infinite Dharmadhatu of
the Triple Jewel. As the nature of a drop of water and the Ocean
is the same, so is the nature of a small space and a large one;
similary, there is and should be non-differentiation and
non-discrimation between the worshipper and the worshipped.
It follow from this, then that there is no duality between one’s
self-nature and the Buddha-nature; i.e.,
there is no notion of an ego, personality,being,etc., involved,
the only reality being the complete identification of one’s
self-nature with the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas and their unlimited
compassion extended to all sentient beings. this awareness is
transcendental to all notions of insides, outside and middle, and
it comprehends all the ten directions. Transcending considerations
of time, it has no beginning or end and encompasses the Three
Realms. Now, Just as this moment of right faith and concentration,
one makes a determination of dedicate oneself to the
Dharmadhatu of the Three Precious Ones for all time without
Beginning or end. This is done in accordance with and adamantince
faith in wisdom that is done in accordance with and adamantine
faith in wisdom that is compared to eating a small diamond
that one can never digest. this is the manifestation of fundamental
Faith and is one of the four kinds that are explained in THE SASTRA
OF THE AWAKENING OF FAITH IN THE MAHAYANA, where it is said:
“This faith is the delight of True Dharma.” The acknowedgement
of this Original Faith is considered to be right faith, and one
who possesses this eligible to undertake the preliminary training
of the Bodhisattva Tao.
TO DESTROY ILLUSION, ESTABLISH THE RIGHT
FAITH WITH RESPECT FOR THE RIGHT TAO
AND DISPEL HETERODOX VIEWS
This is the actual proof of the efficaciousness of the right faith.
For it one has solid confidence in the Buddhadharma based
on wisdom derived from pratice, then all doctrinal disputatuions
or the pitting of one religious or philosophical view against another
leaves one’s faith unmoved. moreover, the use of the mature wisdom
can destroy all absurd statements, evil modes of though, and
erroneous views with which one might come in contact. The
Sutras and the Sastras taught by Buddha and Budhisattvas
contain a complete, universally valid and reasonable teaching
for all sentient begin. Also, many different masters made every
effort to enhance and gorify these profound doctrines by way
of commentary. Therefore, Taking the refuge of right faith in
the Bodhisattva Tao means not only to recognize the truth for
oneself but also to protect the Buddhadharma against insult
and abuse and to profit others by teaching. Using skillful
eloguence of speech and writing, one should manifest the truth
of Buddhadharma to increase the faith of both oneself and others.
The Bodhisattva who takes the refuge of right faith, with his
qualification of self-knowledge, is able , eventually, to arrive
at the stage of non-retrogression. Those who have taken merely
the Three Refuges in order to link up with the tradition of Bodhi-
sattva Pratice are not yet prepared for this stage.
THE FIVE PRECEPTS AND THE TEN VIRTUES
The five precepts, along with the Three Refuges, are the first step in the practice of Buddhadharma for both laymen and Sangha. The five preceptsd are the fundamental discipline in Buddhist training and the necessary moral practice for human-kind. Therefore, The Bodhisattva Garland of Precious Gems Sutra states that all sentient beings’ ability to enter the ocean of the Triple Jewel is dependent on faith and discipline. Our physical , verbal and mental activity are the basis of our production of wholesome and unwholesome karma. According to the Buddhadharma the five precepts are of singular importance to enable us to destroy our evil tendencies, increase the strength of our good tendencies and purify our minds. They are considered to be the moral standard for human beings; and, indeed, of they are not practiced and maintained, then this human form of life will have its demise.
The first precept is to refdrain from killing living beings and, instead to extend loving-kindness to them. The second precept is to refrain from stealing and instead, to practice generosity. The third precept is to refrain from adultery and, instead, to pratice wholesome family life. The fourth precept is to refrain from lying and, instead, to practice truthfulness in all one’s dealings. The fifth precept is to refrain from intoxicants—both drug and liquor—and, instead, to live in gfood health and practice clarity of mind.
the Buddha explained this ethical principles as follows: The first four precepts are considered to be natural moral principles, whereas the fifth precept is condidered to be a conventional moral principle. Natural morality means those ethical principles that all human society should maintan regardless of what religious denomination or philosophy is adhered to. Whether one practices Buddhadharma or not, one should refrain from killing, stealing, adultery and lying. Conventional morality means to behave in such a way that unwholesome actions cannot have the opportunity to aris. even though the consumption of intoxicants need not necessarily involve others, the resulting state can lead to transgression of the first four precepts. furthermore, if one is given to babitual consumption of liquor or drugs, the obvious result is the steady deterioration of one’s physical and mental health.
Whether one practices Buddhadharma or not, if one cultivates these five precepts as the standard for one’s behavior, one can then become a person of unwavering morality, worthy of the respect of others. Besides the voluntary agreement to refrain from some negative or destructive activity, these precepts all contain a positive attitude or practice to be cultivated as their counter-part. the five precepts in Buddhadharma and the Five Constant Virtues in Confucianism are the same.
The practice of non-killing means extending kindness to all living beings. To kill people is a serious matter in the eyes of the world, but to kill smaller living things is not conventionally considered quite so serious. In the Buddha’s Teaching, however, the taking of life of any kind whatsoever is a grave matter. People and societies that value peace and unity must practice non-killing and its positive counterpart—lovingkindness.
Practicing non-stealing means the adoption of right livelihood by human beings. Clothing, food, housing and transportation are esseential requirements of human society and are produced by people’s labor. As such, they are to gotten in such a way that is justifiable and legitimate. If people resort to cheating and stealing or acquiring their property and wealth without the necessary expenditure of labor, then peaceful co-existence is an impossibility. Therefore , the Buddha stated that even a needle or a weed cannot be taken from another without permission.
The practice of refraining from adultery will strengthen moral ties between human beings. The right path to be taken between men and women is wholesome married life with proper responsibility taken for their relationship and what-ever children may come as a result of their union. Therefore, the Buddhist tradition allows lay disciples to marry and considers it correct and justifiable and legitimate source of happiness in this world. To enjoy sexual activity without taking responsibility for one’s actions onlyu leads to a degenerate social situation and such unportunate extremes as incest, venereal disease, etc. Moreover, this is an evasion of one’s true responsibility to raise and educate children and to inculcate in them proper moral and social values. Children are not equipped emotionally or intellectually to educate themselves and need the guidance and good example of their parents and teachers to lead and point them toward wholesome behavior and healthyphysical and mental development.
The practice of non-lying, or truthfulness, means conforming our actions to our words and maintaining the spirit of honesty in all our dealings. Where there is dishonesty, even as samll a social unit as that of husband-and-wife cannot live together in love and righteousness. On an international scale, global unity will remain an impossibility because of the propensity to self-fishness, dishonesty and betrayal on the part of nations and societies. The Buddha praised the virtue of words conforming with actions and observed that honesty and sincerity are characteristic of the sage. The commentary to The Prajnaparamita Sutra states that one who habitually lies possesses an ill fame that spreads far and wide, and such a one, at the end of his life, succumbs to rebirth in a hellish realm.
The practice of non-intoxication, or sobriety, is neccessary to increase and maintain purity of heart and wisdon. Intoxication can frequently lead to the loss of both one’s fortune and honor. The Venerable Hsu Yun has so wisely observed: “Drinking wine and eating meat upset the mind-nature...; with clear tea and vegetarian food the mind errs not, injoying Dharma night and day.” When the consumption of alcoholic beverages of drugs is allowed to become habitual, laziness and shamelessness will certainly develop. Therefore, if one aspires to develop a noble personality and practice the Bodhisattva Dharma, one should refrain from the use of such debilitating substances.
The observation of the five precepts is also the basis of discipline for those who leave home to practice the Bodhisattva Tao. Their practice is stricter than that of laypeople because under extreme conditions the laydisciple is able to transgress these principles. For example, if a lay-Bodhisattva is a member of the military and is called upon to defend the populace, he can justi-fiably do so for the freater good of the community. However, the Sangha members cannot, under any circumstances, be involved in this activity. Another example would be the legitimate enjoyment of sexuality between husband and wife. Sangha members are prohibited completely from engaging in sexuality.
Below is a chart outlining the five precepts and how they correspond to the ten virtues:
No improper remarks
No two faced speech
Non-grasping and clinging
Not full of anger
Not ignorant and unenlightened
The four virtuous modes of verbal activity are here equated to the precept of refraining from untruth. Improper remarks can even be more false than untrue ones, and honeyed words are dishonest. Obscenity and pornography move people’s hearts in an immoral direction.
Two-faced speech serves only to stir up ill will and instigate trouble on both sides of the fence. It can cause people to separate from their own flesh and blood and cause loved ones to become enemies; on a small scale, it can disrup a family, and, on a larger one, it can lead to global warfare.
The use of ugly speech means to make insulting remarks continually. One uses abusive and intolerable speech to insult others and does not seem to realize the effect of one’s own abrasive language. This manner of speechis distorted and unprofitable and so is included in the category of lying.
the three virtuous mental actions are the positive counterparts to the fifth precept of refraining from intoxicants. Grasping and clinging means excessive craving for those things that one should renounce. One craves continually for more and more, never being satisfied with what one has. Being full of anger means the absence of compassion for sentient beings and their situation. Ignorant and unlightened states of mind and action refer to the ignorant of clinging to heterodex views and non-possessing of that wisdom that would let one follow the correct path. These ignorant and unwise states also refer to that condition where one is full of uncontrollavle desires and is foolishly drowning in the sea of false views about the nature of reality. Therefore, one who aspires to tread the Bodhisattva Path must develop right thought and shed all heterodox views. Craving, aversion and delusion are every-body’s problem and are referred to in the Buddhadharma as the three poisons or the three roots of unskillfulness. A Person who has extinguished these three poisons in himself is called holy. One who aims to practice Bodhisattva Dharma should practice generosity, compassion and wisdom, which are the antidotes for these three roots of unskillfulness. It is said that if the protecting embankment of the precepts is broken, the evil waves of the three poisons will overflow, flooding and destroying the personality.
The observatuion of the five precepts will insure that the relationships and moral practice of human society are perfect. To practice the Budhisattva Dharma, it is essential that the aspirant have a moderarely balanced and wholesome temperament. If the stability of personality and behavior is insufficient, where can the Bodhisattva Dharma make its appearance? The observation of the precepts will lend the necessary stability, balance and wholesomeness to one’s personality. The cultivation of these tenvirtues alone will insure one an unobstrusted entrance into the realm of the decas. Because craving, aversion and delusion are kept in check, the mind will be calm and full of peace and quite suitable for contemplative practice. If rebirth in heaven states occurs, the time will not be spent in idle enjoyment of celestial bliss but rather in further practice of the Bodhisattva Tao. Whether in the human or the deva worlds, the Bodhisattva Path consists in continually practic-ing virtuous action and developing wisdom. The Bodhisattva extends loving-kindness and compassion to all sentient beings and teaches and illustrates, by example, the Bodhisattva Tao in whatever realm of existence he finds himself.
SRAMANERA AND BHIKSU
According to the Buddha’s Teaching, the five precepts and the ten virtues constitute what is called the UPASAKA or UPASIKA dharma. The upasaka/upasika is a man or a woman who practices the Buddhadharma in lay life and who protects and serves the Triple Jewel. These two categories of lay disciples together with the SRAMANERAS and the BHIKSUS become the four-fold assembly of Buddha’s disciples. Further analysis and classification establishes the four-, seven-, or nine-fold assembly as illustrated below:
The great assembly in the Buddhist tradition
The refuge of connection
Nine fold assembly
The refuge of right faith
Four fold assembly
Seven fold assembly
The sramanera is a novice monk, and the bhiksu is a fully ordained member of the Buddhist Sangha. After taking the complete education and training of a sramanera, one is eligible to become a bhiksu. The sramanera depends upon a bhiksu master to administer the higher ordination , and it is the responsibility of the master to train and educate the sramanera fully since he will become the fuardian and heir of the Dharma in the future. This education consists of the following: the VINAYA, or essential rules of monastic deportment and behavior; the Buddhist Sutras ; the commentaries of later Patriarchs and teachers, called Sastras; and the essentials of meditation practice. Unless the sramanera is will grounded in these teachings, the Dharma master should not take the responsibility involved in conferring the bhiksu ordination. A traditional saying states:
“A Dharma master must not have any dumb sheep;”i.e., a monk who cannot comprehend and spread the Dharma. The term “sramanera” possesses several meanings. One mianing is “to cease” in the sense of achieving a state of maind wherein one’s craving, aversion and delusion cease. Another meaning is “kindness” in the sense of achieving a state of mind wherein one can practice loving-kindness, or MAITRI.
One who desires to leave home-life and practice as a sramanera must be able to observe the ten precepts. These are as follows:
Not stealing, Celibacy, or brahmacarya,
Not lying ,
Not taking intoxicants,
Not using garlands of flowers,jewelery,perfumes,etc.,
Not listening to music or attending movies, operas,etc.,
Not sleeping on high or broad beds,
Not eating food after twelve noon, and refraining from acquiring
money and valuables.
The first five precepts are the same as those held by lay disciples, with one notable exception. The third lay precept of refraining from adultery or sex which acuses trouble is changed to the observance of complete celibacy for Sangha members.
The sixth precept is to refrain from the use of flower garland, makeup, perfumes and other manner of personal adornment. To enhance one’s personal attractiveness to the opposite sex has no place in the lives of Sangha members who are trying to attain the knowledge and vision of reality. A The seventh precept is to refrain from taking part in dancing, singing, musical and theatrical performances, etc. Disciples who have left home should not view or listen to such things, for the places in which they are taking place usually have no connection with spiritual life. The subject matter of popular music and drama only serves to perpetuate illusions about the nature of this world and has little or nothing to do with the practice path to Bodhi.
The eighth precept is to refrain from sleeping on a high or broad bed. One who has renounced the life of luxury and the priorities of personal comfort and sense pleasure has no need a simple seat and a low bed. For the disciple who has left home, a simple seat and a low bed or mat should be more than sufficient.
The ninth precept is to refrain from eating after mdday. One who has left home should try to imitate the great Patriarchs and teachers of the past, who usually took only one meal a day, which was in the forenon. Satisfaction with one full meal before noon has many benefits, one of which is that a disciple has more time to study and practice Dharma. Another benefit is that one is not plagued with tiredness and lethargy due to overeating and can enjoy better health. It is also said that the hungry ghosts, or pretas, seek their nourishment in the evening; and when they hear the sounds of monk’s bowl, their hunger and suffering increase. Therefore, out of compassion for them the disciple who has left home does not eat in the evening.
The tenth precept is to refrain from acquiring money, jewels,and other valuables. An increase of greed and desire for fame and will surely occur if one acquires these things. Those disciples who have left home should live a tranquil life without the desire for worldly gain, and their needs should be met by the offerings of the lay disciples.
The first five precepts form the sila, or moral discipline—the basis of
the four barga, or groups—of the Buddha’s disciples. The sramanera must, in
addition to the first five precepts, observe and maintain these five additional
precepts, the first four of which are precept is to abandon the wealth that lay-
people depend on. In this way the monk’s life is devoid of personal property,
and he truly lives up to the designation:”homeless one”
The bhiksu, then, is the disciple who has taken the higher ordination in the Buddhadharma. The term “bhiksu” comes from the Sanskrit root-verb “bhiksa” meaning “to beg”. Bhiksu mean one who is without home and property and is dependent on almsfood to support the body. Abhiksu should enjoy a tranquil life of renunciation, possessing only three robes and a bowl. Like a bird flying anywhere, devoid of property and possessions, so the bhiksu goes. Travelling anywhere, observing strictly the monastic Vinaya, the bhiksu spreads the Dharma and maintains the Buddha’s Way in this world.
The bhiksu precepts number 250 and include the sramanera discipline. They constitute a code of refined conduct and discipline concerning the bhiksu’s deportment while he is walking, standing, sitting, sleeping, talking, silent, etc. If the bhiksu maintains his Vinaya, his respect-inspiring deportment is complete, and he is competent to maintain the Buddhadharma in this world. The discipline of bhiksus is complete; that of sramneras is partial. However, both have as their basis the ten precepts, which are called the perfect piscipline of one who leaves home.
THE EIGHT PRECEPTS
The eight precepts are the discipline of laypeople engaged in short training periods or in preparation to leace home. Because the world of laypeople with its work and family obligations can be fatiguing, both mentally a nd p and physically, the Buddhist tradition allows and encourages periods of retreat During these periods, the lay disciples accept the eight precepts and experience a bit of the peace of a will-ordered and disciplined life. In this way, they can develop more understand of the Buddhadharma and enjoy a clarity of mind analogous to the happiness of spring-time. The layman’s precepts are the same as the first nine of the sramanera’s precepts, the sixth and seventh being comgined to make the total of eight. It is customary in Buddhist countries to observe these precepts on the new- and full-moon days of the lunar calendar. The precepts close the doors to the realms of woe (apaya-bhumi) and open the doors to the heaven-worlds and the realms of the sage.
MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA
According to one’s learning and level of practice, there is a distinction made between Mahayana and Hinayana Buddhism. Hinayana is a term given by the Mahayana to those schools of Buddhism that practice to attain Sravaka Budhi, the enlightenment of a sravaka, or one who listens to and understands a Buddha’s Teaching. This enlightenment is termed that of an arahant, or accomplished one. Mahayana Buddhists aspire to win the Annuttara Samyak Sambodhi of a Buddha, both for their own liberation and for the liberation of all sentient beings. A traditional simile concerning these two yanas is that a solitary individual riding a bicycle is analogous to the Hinayana path, while riding in a train full of people is comparable to the Mahayana.
According to the Bodhisattva Dharma, an individual who has determined to practice and seek deliverance for himself only has blockaded himself within and limited himself to the region of Hinayana. In a contrast, one who has deter-mined to practice the Bodhicitta with the aspiration to assist in the liberation of other living beings has entered the region of Mahayana. The practice of Bodhisattva Dharma is just the promotion of this Hahayana insight, and its basis spirit is the determination of the Bodhicitta.
DETERMINING THE BODHICITTA; THE FOUR GREAT
VOWS AND THE FOUR DEFEATS OF THE
Determining the Bodhicitta is spoken of in the last of the Four Great Vows as follows:
“ The Supreme Enlightenment we vow to achieve.”
Enlightenment is Bodhi; Supreme Enlightenment is the Annuttara Samyak Sambodhi, or the buddha Fruit. Determining the Bodhicitta means using the faith of our worldly minds to vow to complete this path. However, if one is to complete this vow, one should have the support of the other three Great Vows. To arrive at Annuttara Samyak Sambodhi. one should have the desire to spread the Buddhadharma and effect the liberation of all the sentient beings. Therefore, the First vow is:
“Sentient beings without number we vow to enlighten.”
For a Bodhisattva,the eradication of one’s own suffering is joined with the desire to aid in the eradication of all others’ suffering as well. The real Bodhisattva identifies the Immeasurable distress of all sentient beings as his own. With this immeasurable compassion (Mahakaruna), one can take up the second vow:
“Vexationswithout number we vow to eradicate.”
The desire to win Supreme Bodhi, convert and liberate sentient beings, aid in the eradication of their distress, etc., should not be an impulse based on idle sentimentality or romantic notions of spiritual life. This noble aspiration can only come to completion provided that there is a strong foundation of wisdom. with wisdom only, and not otherwise, can one spread the Dharma and assist living beings. This wisdom arises from a keen desire to learn and pratice the Buddhadharma. Therefore, the Buddha said, “All Buddha in the three periods arise from learning and pratice”. One who is not willing to learn will remail eternally foolish, and what foolish man or woman ever completed the Bodhi Tao, spread Dharma and assisted sentient beings? As there is Immeasurable distress in the lives of sentient beings, there are innumerable methods of Dharma pratice. Therefore, the third vow of great compassion is:
“limitless approaches to Dharm we vow to master.”
When one perceives the suffering of sentientbeings, one vows to enlighten sentient beings without number. When perceiving the distress in one’s life and that of others,one vows to eradicate vexations without end. Perceiving the myriad Dharma doors to enlightenment, one vows to master them all. Perceiving the truth of nirvana, one vows to attain the Supreme Bodhi. All Bodhisattvas who determine the Bodhicitta hold there Four Vows of great compassion.
There are various conditiion leading to the deterioration of the bodhi-citta and the pratice of Bodhisattva Dharma. These conditions are called parajika, or “defeats”, and they are acts or thoughts that break or defeat the Bodhisattva pratice. This same term is used in connection with the monastic Vinaya, where it denotes the first four rules, transgression of which calls for expulsion from the order of bhiksus. The elder Tripitaka Master Hsuan Tsang translated this term as “overcoming by specific conditions.” This means the good roots necessary for the pratice of Bodhisattva Dharma are overcome by the specific conditions of unwholesome roots.
The first specific condition which leads to the defeat of the Bodhicitta is t he tendency to praise oneself and to slander others. If the Nodhisattva loses his Mahakaruna, he is no longer willing to profit others at his own expense. Being solely concerned with his own name and fame, he loses respect in the eyes of family,friends and society.
The second specific condition leading to defeat is seeing someone in a stateof sugffering and anxiety and not lifting a finger to help. Losing one’s Mahakaruna, one makes no effort to teach or profit those who may come for assistance but, instead, cultivates miserly tendencies.
The third specific conditon leading to defeat is no receiving the repentant or those desirous of following the right path. Losing one’s Mahakaruna, one allows himself to bear anger and grudges in his mind and, as a result, is not willing to teach or assist those who are repentant.
The fourth specific condition leading to defeat is the act of foolishly deceiving others with pseudo-Dharma. Without wosdom, one manipulates heterodox views, slandering the Buddhadharma and deceiving others with what appears to be Dharma but whichis , in fact, not genuine.
If a Bodhisattva falls into any of these categories of defeat, he loses the Bodhicitta and also the qualification of Bodhisattva pratice. Thesefore, one should preserve the qualifications, protect the Bodhicitta and increase the vast storehouse of Bodhisattva Dharma.
THE SIX PARAMITAS
The six Patamitas, or perfections, are the means for realizing the four great vows and completing the Bodhisattva pratice. They are as follows: 1) Dana, generosity or charity; 2) Sila, the precepts or morality; 3) Ksanti, patience or forbearance;
4) Virya, energy and zeal; 5) Dhyana, contemplative pratice
or meditation; 6) Prajna, Wisdome or the power to discern reality
When one has heard the Mahayana Dharma and develpoed great compassion, the pratice of the six paramitas is the natural next step on the Bodhisattva Path. The great vows, deep as the ocean, should have a mountain of pratice of Six Pharamitas, and filling (or fulfilling) the vows means to complete the Supreme Bodhi of Buddha Fruit. The Tao of Bodhisattva Dharma is the Pratice of the Six Paramitas.
The first paramita is Dana, or charity and generosity. The Highest worldly form of this is to give one’s body, or even one’s very life, for the benefit of others. This is described as internal charity, while the type of generosity regarding personal property. money,time, etc., is referred to as external charity. Beyond Dana, in this internal and external sense, there is a transcendental form, which is the use of one’s talents, intellect, scholarship, eloquence,etc., to spread the message of buddhadharma. This is called the almsgiving of Buddha Truth. the principle of Dana is the spirit of self-sacrifice in order to benefit the multitude.
The second Paramita is Sila, or morality. As stated above, the discipline of Mahayana Bodhisattva is not only concerned with the negative prohibitions but also with their positive counter-parts. Sila means the cessation of evil and the initiation of the good. This sila is formulated as the 5,8,10 or 250 percepts. The principle of Bodhisattva moral discipline is to attain the state of non-retrogression in one’s moral behavior whereby the observation of sila becomes automatic.
The third Paramita is Ksanti, or patience and forbearance. Holding onto the objective of doing good, especially in this age of chaos and impurity thuoughout the six realms of sentient beings, is not an easy affair. There are so many adverse circumstances to obstruct the practice of Bodhisattva Dharma. The Bodhisattva, equipped with right view and his practice of the Ksanti Paramita, is able to deal successfully with thes situations, effect his own liberation and aid all other living beings. The Bodhisattva should also develop the capacity for forgiveness, which arises from wisdom. Wisdom perceives that all sentient beings are produced by causal conditions without self-nature and are of the same noture as oneself.
The fourth paramita is Virya, or energy. The term “energy” is used in the sense of putting forth energy to win those states of wholesomeness as yet unknown and unwon. One puts forth energy in the practice of the Bodhisattva Dharma and energetically maintians the Bodhicita. Without developing Virya Paramita, one determines the Bodhicitta only temporarily. When meeting with adverse conditions, one is disillusioned and drops the practice. Virya, Then, comes to mean persistence in the face of disillusionment and energetic striving to complete the Bodhi Tao and to win the supreme Buddha Fruit.
The fifth Paramita is Dhyana, or contemplative practice. Dhyana, in Sanskrit, means concentration practice and is synonymous with samadhi. Joining the two words, we have the chinese phrase Ch’an-Ting. The original meaning of Ch’an-Ting is to concentrate the mind on one point. The effort of contemp-lation is the tonic of spiritual health. One studying the Bodhisattva Tao who cannot control his confused and disorderly mind must necessarily practice Ch’an-Ting and develop light and power and the ability to be unmoved by desires. Ch’an-Ting is the source of all wisdom and equanimity and the means to complet-ion of the Bodhisattva Tao.
The sixth Paramita is Prajna, or wisdom. Although all worldly knownledge and learing are thought of as wisdom, the wisdom tradition of the Buddhadharma is no quite the same. Acccording to the Buddham, wisdom is the ability to recognize the truth behind the temporary show of appearances and to possess confidence regarding this truth. The method of pratice leading to wisdom, called Ch’an-Ting, encourages us not to seek anything but to unite ourselves with the Truth. This is called Original Wisdom and it encompassess discriminat-ive wisdom, sothough its scope and the approach to it are different. Original wisdom is the apprehension of the truth that all things arise from causal con-ditions, have no self-nature and are, therefore, void. The very essence of those six Paramitas is wisdom, and the way of wisdom is the Bodhisattva Tao.
The Sanskrit term “Paramita” means “Gone across to the other shore. “The practice of these Pramitas can lead one across the sea of birth,death and destress to the other shore of peace and truth—i.e., Nirvana. The purified mind and wholesome behavior that arises through the pracitce of the six Paramitas are praised by all sages, ancient and modern. Perceptively, Chuang T’se observed long ago: “ The body as rotten wood, the mind as cold ashes, losing all things, beyond the world.” Another Chinese sage, Lao T’se, also insightfully noted: “Actions like the folw of water, mind calm as a mirror; the sounds of the world appear as an echo.”
THE FOUR ALL-EMBRACING VIRTUES
Another Bodhisattva-Dharma tool used to benefit others and oneself is that of the four All-Embracing Virtues. Dana, in this sense, means giving what others like to them in order to lead them to become receptive and to lean toward the truth. Priyavacana means affectionate and beautiful speech used for the same reasons as Dana. Arthakrtya means conduct profitable to others and is used in the same way as Dana and Priyavacana. Smanarthata means cooperation with and adaptation to others for the sake of leading them to the truth. As Avalokitesvara appeared in 32 form, one, similarly, should mainfest all kinds of forms to convert and aid skillfully all sentient beings.
Depending on our wisdom, we practice the Six Paramitas and the four All-Embracing Virtures and complete the Tao of Bodhisattva Dharma. Each individual, according to his position—Whether it be farmer, soldier, laboror, educator, politician, businessman, monk or nun, etc.—can determine the Bodhicitta. The unfolding of this Bodhicitta lies in the practice of Bodhisattva conduct, spreading the truth of Buddhadharma, and establishing the practicality of the Teachings as a way of life in a genuinely humane society and culture. The principle of his practice is that the spirit is consistent though the circumstances vary. The Bodhisattva Tao should have no restrictions depend-ent on time and place but should respond freely and spontaneously according to circumstances.
May all sentient beings practice the Bodhi Tao and arrive at the Supreme-Buddha-Fruit stage!
Anuttara Sanyak Sambodhi: The incomparably complete, perfect ------------------------ Awakening experienced by Buddhas.
Apaya-bhumi: State of woe; the three realms of existence characterised
----------- by extreme discomfort and delusion, i.e., hell-states,
animail birth and hungry ghosts, or pretas.
Arahant: Lit, accomplished one; one who has destroyed the fetters
------- and defilements binding one to the wheel of birth
and death. One who has extinguished, in himself, craving, aversion and delusion.
Arthakrtya: one of the four All-Embracing Virtues; performance
---------- of conduct profitable to others in order to lead them
toward the truth.
Bhiksu: A Buddhist monk who has taken the higher ordination ------ and the 250 precepts.
Bhiksuni: A Buddhist nun who has taken the higher ordination -------- and 350 precepts.
Bodhi: enlightenment or awakening.
Bodhicitta: Lit, enlightened mind or heart; the determination
---------- or vow to develop and pratice the Bodhisattva path to
Bodhisattva: Lit., enlightened being; one who has determined
----------- the Bodhicitta and pratices the six Paramitas, the four Great
Vows, the All-Embracing Virtues,etc.
Brahmacarya: Lit., Brahma or purified life, ususally connoting the ----------- pratice of celibacy.
Buddha: Lit., the Awakened One ; one who through aeons of ------ spiritual development has attained Anuttara Samyak Sambodhi.
This epithet usually refers to Sakymuni Buddha, Who lived abd taught in India some 2,600 years ago.
Buddhadharma: The Teaching of the Buddha.
Buddharupa: A statue or image of the Buddha, used for devotional ---------- purposes.
Ch’an-Ting: Lit., “mind still and quiet”; the Chinese translation
---------- of the Sanskrit terms Dhyana-samadhi, meaning deep
contemplative pratice or yogic absorption.
Citta: Mind or heart, the two terms being synonymous in Asian ----- religious philosophy.
Dana: The pratice of generosity or charity; one of the Paramitas
---- as well as one of the All-Embracing Virtues,Where it means,
in the latter, giving others what they want just to lead them towards the truth.
Devas: The inhabitants of the heavenly realms, Which are characterised
----- by long life, joyous surroundings and blissful stated of
mind. In the Buddhist tradition, these states are understood to be impermanent, not eternal.
Dharma: Lit., that whgich upholds. Dharma has no exact equivalent
------ in English. It can mean variously: the Buddha’s teaching,
the laws of the universe, the nature of things, any and all phenomena, the real or unreal, etc. When understood as the perfect Teaching of the Awakened One, it constitutes the second of the Three precious Jewels and the Three efuges.
Dharmadhatu: Lit., dharma element or realm, wherever the principles discovered
----------- by the Buddha are in operation, i.e., everywhere. Also, all
phenomena and and mounema and their underlying nature.
Dhyana: The practice of concentration, i.e., meditation. Also, more
------ specificsally, the four form concentrations and the foru formless
Dviyana: Lit., two vehicles. The two vehicles or practice paths of Sravakayana ------- and Pratyekabuddhayana.
Four Great Vows: The four vows held by all Bodhisattvas. These vows are called
--------------- great because of the wondrous and inconceivable compassion
involved in fulfilling them. They are as follows: Sentient
beings without number we vow to enlighten; Vexations without
end we vow to eradicate; Limitless approaches to Dharma we vow
to Dharma we vow to master; The Supreme Awakening we vow to
Hinayana: The lesser Vehicle; a term applied by the Mahayana to those schools
-------- of Buddhism that practice to attain the fruits of Sravakayana and
Pratyekabuddhayana and do not attempt to attain the Anuttara Samyak
Sambodhi of a Buddha.
Icchantika: One who has no interest in the path to Awakening, or one whose ---------- good roots are completely covered.
Karma: Volition, volitional or intentional activity. Karma is always followed
----- by its fruit, vipaka. Karma and vipaka are oftentimes referred to as
the law of causality, a cardinal concern in the Teaching of the Buddha.
Ksanti: Patience or forbearance, one of the six Paramitas.
Mahakaruna: Great compassion.
Mahayana: Lit., great vehicle, a name held by those schools of Buddhism that
-------- advocate the path to the Supreme Awakening of a Buddha and the
crossing over of all sentient beings to the shore of peace and truth.
Nirvana: The deathless; the cessation of all suffering. The very opposite of
------- the Wheel-of-Birth-and Death; it is what those in the Buddhist
tradition aspire to experience. The Absolute, which transcends
designation and mundane characterization.
Parajika: Lit., defeat or the conditions leading to the defeat of the
-------- Bodhicitta. Also, the conditions leading to the defeat of the bhisku
Paramita: Lit., that which crosses over; the Six Perfections, namely: Sana,
-------- or generosity; Sila, or morality; Ksanti, or patience, Virya, or
energy; Dhyanam or meditation, and Prajna, or wisdom.
Prajna: Fundamental wisdom or insinght; one of the Pramitas.
Pratyekabuddha: A solitary Buddha; one who has achieved Awakening through
-------------- insight into the dependent origination of mind and body.
Pratyekabuddhas lead only solitary lives, and they do not
teach the Dharma to others nor do they have any desire to do
Pretas: Hungry ghosts, who are tormented by continual and unsatisfied cravings.
------ The preta-realm is one of the three state of woe (apaya-bhumi) and one
of the six realms of existence.
Priyavacana: Lit., loving or affectionate speech. This beautiful and
----------- affectionatte speech is one of the four All-Embracing virtues
and is used to lead sentient beings toward the truth.
Samadhi: Deep concentration; the state of one-pointedness of mind characterized
------- by peace and imperturbability. Samadhi is also one of the Paramitas
and is indispensabele on the path to Bodhi.
Samanarthata: Cooperation with and adaption to others for the sake of leading
------------ them towards the truth. Samanarthata is one of the four All-
Sangha: Lit., harmonious community. In the Buddhadharma, Sangha means the
------ order of bhiksus, sramaneras and sramanerikas. Another meaning is the
Arya Sangha, attained one of the four stages of sanctity. Also, the
Siksamana: A lay-disciple who maintains the eight precepts, either temporarily --------- or as preparation for leaving home.
Sila: Moral precepts. These number 5, 8, 10, 250 or 350. Also, one of the ---- Paramitas.
Sutra: A discourse by the Buddha or one of his major disciples. The Sutra ----- collection is one of the three divisions of the Buddhist scripture.
Sramanera: A novice monk holding the 10 precepts.
Sramanerika: A novice nun holding the 10 precepts.
Sravaka: A disciple who hears the Teaching personally from a Buddha and ------- observes the practices on the path to Arahant-ship.
Tao: Path or way. The Sanskrit equivalent to this chinese term is marga.
Ten Virtues: The virtuous modes of behavior, which are the positive ----------- counterpart to the five precepts.
Theravada: Lit., the Way of the Elders. The Buddhist tradition, the
--------- scriptures of which are recorded in the pali language; this
tradition advocates the Arahant path.
Three Poisons: Craving, aversion and delusion; also, these are termed the three ------------- root-stains or the three roots of unskillfulness.
Three Precious Ones: Buddha, Dharma and Sangha; sometimes referred to as the ------------------- Teacher, the Teaching and the Taught.
Three Refuges: Taking refuge and possessing confidence in the Buddha’s
------------- Awakening, in his teaching and in the Sangha of enlightened
Three Vehicles: The yanas of Sravakas, Pratyekabuddhas and Buddhas.
Upasaka: The male lay-disciples of the Buddha, characterized by their
------- maintenance of the five precepts and Three Refuges.
Upasika: The female lay-disciples of the Buddha, characterized by their
------- maintenance of the five precepts and the Three Refuges.
Vinaya: Disciplined conduct, referring specifically to the monastic rules for
------ the disciples who have left home; also, one of the three divisions of
the Buddhist scriptures.
Virya: Energy; the energy necessary to maintain and progress in spiritural
----- development. Also, one of the Paramitas.